The wounded, the disabled, the widows and orphans were taken care of less by a state administration going bankrupt than by philanthropic societies and the Zemgor. In fact, more than half the Soviet population was affected. The peasants responded to requisitions by refusing to till the land. More than 100 million people from over 30 nations participated in the war. RGIA, f. 806, op. For example, cotton production fell to 5%, and iron to 2% of pre-war levels. Confederate Civil War Casualties. It is estimated that the total output of mines and factories in 1921 had fallen to 20% of the preâWorld War level, and many crucial items experienced an even more drastic decline. In the 1960s, the Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis (1906-1981) re-assessed the number of military deaths at 908,000, higher than the estimations that until then had been somewhere between 511,068 and 775,369 dead or killed. : GIZ, 1923, pp. The human cost of the Civil War was beyond anybody's expectations. As elsewhere, the great majority of soldiers killed, wounded, missing or captured came from the infantry, where the peasant class, which at the time represented 80 percent of the population of the empire, was predominant. Alexandre Sumpf, Université de Strasbourg, Section Editors: Boris Kolonickij; Nikolaus Katzer. Culture, National Identity and German Occupation in World War I, Cambridge 2000. Urlanis, B.C. Because of the war, production had been disorganised, depriving the countryside of workers and animals, which were not replaced either by refugees, who were too weak, or by prisoners of war, who were too few. (deaths). A calculation made after the fall of the Soviet Union estimated the number at 439,369: one-quarter of the 1.89 million deaths in battle. The first inventory of the archives of the bureau of the number of losses on the fronts of the world war keeps the lists by unit. The Campaign Against Enemy Aliens during World War I, Cambridge, MA 2003. There did exist in Soviet Russia a memory not only private, but intimate, did of the losses suffered during the Great War. The Russian Civil War - When did it end?  During the Great Retreat of the summer 1915, the army evacuated all the populations considered to be a potential threat for the immediate rear of the retreating units. 191-219. Two terrible droughts affected at least thirty-six provinces of European Russia, that is to say 26 million Russians and 9 million Ukrainians, according to the International Red Cross. Gran, M. M. / Kurkina, P. I. 100-106. Military, civilian, national and local institutions established these lists according to differing aims and methods. During World War II, most of the world's nations were divided between two different military alliances known as the Axis and the Allies.. One of the things that stands out most about this war is the number of casualties. In 1916, the army Chief of Staff acknowledged more than 5.3 million losses (sick, wounded, missing, killed and taken prisoner), but with an important variable: Russia reported around 439,396 missing, of whom one-third were probably killed, one-third died during care, and another third were sent to prisoner of war camps.  Nearly 6 million refugees, for the most part non-Russian, surged into Russia at the same time, suffering all the ups and downs resulting from a chaotic expedition and total destitution. Russian prisoners of war in Germany, 1914-1922]. It is therefore not surprising that among the nations derived from the splitting up of the Romanov empire, plenty of problems of collective and individual memorials, public and private, linked by the Great War, arose, and which, taken all together, explain its absence from national histories. Not only was the wartime carnage on the battlefields great, but many civilians died as well. The units had to continually assess and account for losses and hors-de-combat, which justified the demand for more supplies of men. Peace and the delayed demobilization, the choices of the civil war, the evacuations that were more or less consented to, rendered the collective initiatives for commemoration after the war almost impossible. It was the result of the German defeat in World War I, Polish nationalism, and Bolshevik expansionism in the wake of the Russian Civil War. : «Opyt izučenija sanitarnyh poseldstvij vojny 1914-1917 v Rossii», Trudy komissii, pp. 3, d. 25 (losses), 26 (returns to camp), 45, 56, 62, etc. Brower, Daniel: Turkestan and the Fate of Russian Empire, London & New York 2003, pp. "Reasoned estimates have placed the number of dead from battle and disease in the Red â¦ The number of soldiers missing in action and civilian losses suffered distinguish Russia from the other warring nations. The Russian Civil War was to tear Russia apart for three years â between 1918 and 1921.  In 1924, the psychiatrist Sergej A. Preobrazhenskii, who spent the war treating soldiers at the central hospital for the mentally ill (dushevno-bolnye) of the Petrograd Committee of the Union of Towns, estimated the total number of disabled ex-servicemen from the two wars to be 1.8 million.  This can be explained by the growth of the urban population with the arrival of refugees, the wounded and sick, and the high level of infant mortality. , This disturbing figure only partly includes the neurosis and psychosis caused by the war. Understand the conflict in Ukraine since it erupted in 2014 and track the latest developments around Russian and U.S. involvement on the Global Conflict Tracker from the Center for Preventive Action. Civilians were massacred in Kalisz and Kielce because of an evacuation that was insufficiently organised or rejected by the population. It is, however, possible, as we shall see, to establish a rough estimate. Only a strong resistance on the part of the civilian authority stopped the operation degenerating into death marches like those of the Armenian genocide. See RGVIA, f. 16196, op. Finally, the civil war which followed the Great War made the demographic toll and political significance of these losses far heavier. Anglo-Irish War: 1919 1921 776 : 898 : 1674 Military includes Royal Irish Constabulary. Some 300,000â500,000 Cossacks were killed or deported during Decossackization, out of a population of around three million. In Russia, the first obstacle was the absence of an Unknown Soldier, of a national memorial that would make sense of the sacrifice that had been enforced. 5, d. 10647, ll. If tuberculosis was considered a disability, the common pathologies that were due to extreme fatigue or poor food struggled to be recognised as such in Russia during the war. 2-5. The total figures give the wrong impression of the social significance of the losses. At the front, the soldiers saw their comrades disfigured by technical warfare, but the mass deaths soon made these scenes banal and mourning became mechanical. The railways barely crawl. The Russian Civil War was known as a war between the âWhitesâ and the âReds.â The Reds were â¦ Friedlander, Kim: «Neskol’ko aspektov shellshock’a v Rossii, 1914-1916» [Some aspects of the shell shock in Russia, 1914-1916], Rossija i Pervaja mirovaja vojna, Saint Petersburg 1999, pp. The Russian Civil War ended on November 11, 1920 with the defeat of the White Forces, the Red Army's chief enemy, on the Crimean peninsula. Casualties and consequences of the war. A vindictive majority thus imposed a return to the collective organisation of agriculture and actions against the privileged: noble landowners or ecclesiastics and “separator” peasants enriched by the commercialisation of their produce. Nagornaja, Drugoj voennyj opyt. Some 80 percent (1.5 million) still suffered from neurosis or confusion (talking nonsense, loss of memory or hearing), or had even become mentally ill in the proper sense of the term. American Civil War casualties are those soldiers, both Union and Confederate, who died, were wounded, went missing or were captured. The droughts of 1920 and 1921, as well as the 1921 famine, worsened the disaster still further. According to Pravda, "The workers of the towns and some of the villages choke in the throes of hunger.  It is not a question of a few inaccuracies, but of several tens or even thousands of individuals of whom we know nothing. The number that is most often quoted is 620,000. Nestor Makhno Nestor Makhno Addendum: Civilian Casualties, The Russian Civil War and the 30 Years War. The American Civil War was the nation's bloodiest war. By 1921, cultivated land had shrunk to 62% of the pre-war area, and the harvest yield was only about 37% of normal. Millions more were also killed by widespread starvation, wholesale massacres by both sides, and pogroms against Jews in Ukraine and southern Russia.  In other nations, such memorials were focussed on collective grief. It is estimated that the former Soviet Union lost some 1.5 million combatants, and around 8 million civilians died following armed attacks, famine and disease. Ždanov, N.M.: Russkie voennoplennye v mirovoj vojne 1914-1918 [Russian prisoners of war during the world war, 1914-1920)], Moscow 1920, p. 77. Novosel’skij, S.A.: «Vljanie vojny na estestvennoe dviženie naselenija» [The influence of the war on the natural evolution of the population], Trudy komissii, p. 115. The exchange rate with the U.S. dollar declined from two rubles in 1914 to 1,200 in 1920. Liulevicius, Vejas: War land on the Eastern Front. Sumpf, Alexandre: War Losses (Russian Empire) , in: 1914-1918-online. All the elements joined forces to cause a serious crisis, the climate being only partly responsible. There are classic explanations for this unusual phenomenon, the first of which is the destructive nature of mechanical warfare: the power of the artillery which buried or blew men up sometimes leaving no trace, especially for an army whose soldiers had no identification tags. The results of the civil war were momentous. Following a consideration of these questions, the large number of civilian victims must be emphasized. The loss of Ukraine deprived red Russia of its granary. Read more about this topic: Russian Civil War, Aftermath, Allied Intervention in The Russian Civil War. Around 2,000 settlers, ten times more than in Turkestan, lost their lives in a new anti-colonial war. But that does not take into account some other facts: 500,000 soldiers missing, 3 million prisoners of war, 1.1 million disabled, 6 million refugees and tens of thousands of civilian victims. Irish civilians were all British citizens during the conflict.  Austria and Hungary, but also in Turkey, Romania and in occupied France. The Government of Russia, following a study conducted by the Russian Academy of Science in 1993, puts the deaths at 26.6 million, including about 8.66 million military deaths. The litany of deaths announced in the village contributed to the outburst of violence which had been smouldering since the first revolution of 1905: assassinations and fires laid waste to the countryside behind the lines just as efficiently as did an army on the march on the frontlines. October 25, 1922, when the People's Revolutionary Army of the Far Eastern Republic took Vladivostok, the almost 5-year Civil War in Russia ended. Poteri vooruženyh sil, pp. Gatrell, Peter: A Whole Empire Walking. If the anti-German riots of May 1915 in Moscow, directly linked to the war, only caused a few deaths, the same is not true of the revolt against mobilization in Turkestan. : Istorija voennyh poter’ [History of war losses], Saint Petersburg 1994, pp. The mistakes of the tsarist regime, the Bolshevik party and Soviet Russia caused countless deaths during the war. Calculating those killed during the Great War was neither easy during that time, nor during the following decades. The civil war saw pillage and requisitioning develop, especially as uncontrolled floods of migrants hindered the redistribution of agricultural products between regions that over-produced and regions that consumed. With the Great Retreat in the summer of 1915, whole countries (Poland, Lithuania) found themselves intensely exploited by the German army. Gran, M.M. Punitive organs of the All Great Don Cossack Host sentenced 25,000 people to death between May 1918 and January 1919. Includes 5 activities aimed at students 11-14 years old (KS3) & 5 activities aimed at students 14-16 year old (GCSE). Nevertheless, the incertitude was due above all to structural factors, the first of which was the tangle of institutions whose job it was to estimate the losses.  Out of 103,194 wounded and subsequently treated in the hospitals of Petrograd, only 24 percent were sent back directly to the front. These Ã©migrÃ©s included a large part of the educated and skilled population of Russia. Above all, the lack of interest from the government for the prisoners, who were suspected of having giving themselves up, representing too great a financial burden for Russia which was on the edge of the abyss – was never sufficiently compensated for by the mobilization of the Red Cross, the Union of Towns and the Zemstvos (Zemgor), imperial or municipal committees for philanthropic help and civilian associations. If the collapse of political authority was the main factor in the revival of the peasant commune (mir) during 1917, the death of hundreds of thousands of peasants in their prime, heads of smallholdings or older sons who were to become such, also played a role. Russian Federation () The world's costliest civil war, in terms of the number of lives lost during combat and in events relating to the war, is the Russian Civil War of 1917-22. In total, 50 percent of the men the army considered fit for service were mobilized. The industrial production value descended to one seventh of the value of 1913, and agriculture to one third. The repression extinguished the revolt within a month in Turkestan, but it continued among the neighbouring Kazakh nomads. The Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War started on 30 September 2015, with 4,000 Russian military personnel being stationed in Syria. Urlanis, Istorija voennyh poter’, p. 148. David Bullock, the author of The Russian Civil War (2008) has argued that no one has been able to calculate accurately the cost in human life attributable to the Civil War. We can, however, attempt to extrapolate some partial data to determine for example the hotly debated total of war wounded. The gulf between the Chief of Staff and high-ranking officers became larger, making the general mutiny in 1917 and the organisation of the Red Army in 1918-1920 possible. Kolchak's government shot 25,000 people in Ekaterinburg province alone.  Its mission was to prove that Russia had been a victim of the conflict and of foreign intervention during the civil war. Based on the statistics, the following losses can be identified: 1. This database includes lists and narrative reports reporting casualties sustained by Confederate Army units during the war. See also: List of genocides by death toll This list of wars by death toll includes death toll estimates of all deaths that are either directly or indirectly caused by war. The results of the civil war were momentous. These 16 million soldiers thus represented almost the total number of available men, contrary to the widespread cliché of “the immense Russian reservoir”. Most of them were civilians. ): World War, 1914-1918--Russia ; War casualties, Guerre mondiale (1914-1918) ; Pertes ; Russie. At most, other nationalities had the right to form small cavalry units (Caucasia), of riflemen (the Baltic lands) or labourers (Turkestan). The Russian forces also consisted of 25 strategic bombers, 20 tactical bombers, 12 attack bombers, 8 fighter aircraft, 16 attack helicopters and various other aircraft. Calculating those killed during the Great War was neither easy during that time, nor during the following decades. Though the number of killed and wounded in the Civil War is not known precisely, most sources agree that the total number killed was between 640,000 and 700,000. , Today it is still just as difficult to determine how many men were mobilised by Russia between 1914 and 1918, how many fought, how many were in prisoner-of-war camps and how many perished.  At the end of the war, N. M. Zhdanov estimated that 11.9 percent of sick prisoners had been maimed to such a degree, tuberculosis affecting almost one in five patients.. The second was that the memory of this conflict, although instrumentalized by the Bolsheviks for a short time, could not be that of mass deaths: epidemics, civil war, famine, the Great Terror and the Second World War diluted what in France and in Great Britain appeared as the massacre of massacres, the sacrifice of sacrifices. The third inventory is organised according to type. Russian prisoners of war in Germany, 1914-1922], Moscow 2010, p. 361. Rossijskie voennoplennye Pervoj mirovoj vojny v Germanii (1914-1922) [Another war experience. This was a result of the spatial and temporal nature of the occupation of the western fringes of the empire. Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated total number of men killed in action in Civil War and Polish-Soviet war as 300,000 (125,000 in the Red Army, 175,500 White armies and Poles) and total number of military personnel died from disease (on both sides) as 450,000. World War II losses of the Soviet Union from all related causes were about 27,000,000 both civilian and military, although exact figures are disputed. The thanksgiving services conducted by the priest of the village only offered a mediocre consolation and could not prevent a reflection on the conflict and the political system responsible for it. Although Russia experienced extremely rapid economic growth in the 1930s, the combined effect of World War I and the Civil War left a lasting scar in Russian society, and had permanent effects on the development of the Soviet Union. Several obstacles prevented the reconstruction of a memorial of the Great War immediately after the conflict. Russian Revolution - Causes, Timeline & Definition - HISTORY At any rate, these casualties exceed the nation's loss in all its other wars, from the Revolution through Vietnam. Preobraženskij, S.A.: «О pomošči nervno-psihičeskim invalidam» report to the Panrussian congress of psycho-neurologists, Petrograd, 3 January 1924, GARF, f. 4347 (Vserokompom), op. The works of M. Krivošeev in Rossija i SSSR v vojnah XX veka. Associations between psychosis and physical injury were also discussed. While famine caused over 6 million extra deaths between 1914 and 1922, the various epidemics (Spanish flu in 1919, typhoid in 1920-1921 and cholera in 1922) caused about 7 million and the fighting in the two conflicts directly caused 5 million. Apart from the Slavs (including the Poles), the Chief of Staff only considered it safe to give arms to Jews (who could not be officers). O. Nagornaja, quoting the estimations of Levickij for the distribution of invalids in the Russian provinces, Drugoj voennyj opyt. The Bolshevik victory ensured the supremacy of the Russian Communists in the nascent Soviet Union. La Grande Guerre dans l’histoire culturelle de l’Europe, Paris 2008. Letters of 27 November and 24 December 1916. d. ^ World War I figures include expeditions in North Russia and Siberia.  Communication with families and public communication had to be viewed with skepticism: the lists published in the local and national press did not always correspond to the calculations made by military or health-service statisticians. Finally, the 1918 civil war intensified the terrible human cost of the conflict. Refugees in Russia During World War I, Bloomington 1999. Violent protests and raids on the institutions of the Russian colonizers and the colonial administration set up in the 1860s ensued. In the early 1900s, the Russian Civil War caused as many as 9 million deaths. The peasantry took the opportunity to unite against all non-peasants and solve conflicts over land and other social conflicts themselves.  This figure is by nature very variable. In 1916, the army Chief of Staff acknowledged more than 5.3 million losses (sick, wounded, missing, killed and taken prisoner), but with an important variable: Russia reported around 439,396 missing, of whom one-third were probably killed, one-third died during care, and another third were sent to prisoner of war camps. Later, a national memorial to remember the victims of the Petrograd repression was proposed.  Thus, with an average figure of 5.15 million soldiers who passed through healthcare services (2,844,500 wounded and 2,303,680 sick), we reach a total of 1.14 million young men more or less handicapped (67,000 of whom were completely disabled). The Bolsheviks found that this principle applied to themselves after October, when they expected to disengage quickly from World War I. Russian Civil War (1918â20), conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government led by Vladimir Lenin against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. / Kuvšinnikova, P. A. The remaining scattered resistance was more or less a matter of mopping up for the Bolsheviks. Le tournant de 1914-1915, Paris 2010, pp. The civil war occurred because after November 1917, many groups had formed that opposed Leninâs Bolsheviks.These groups included monarchists, militarists, and, for a short time, foreign nations. Holquist, Peter: «Les violences de l’armée russe contre les Juifs en 1915: causes et limites», in Horne, John (ed. The tendency of the former to minimize losses, and of the latter to exaggerate the quality of treatment for the sick and wounded by particular institutions was accentuated by the distortion owing to temporal and geographical distance. As many as 10 million lives were lost as a result of the Russian Civil War, and the overwhelming majority of these were civilian casualties. Thousands of perceived opponents of the Bolsheviks were murdered by â¦ Chopard, Thomas: «Les violences exercées au cours du processus révolutionnaire et de la guerre civile en Ukraine (1918-1922)», doctoral thesis, EHESS. In Ukraine during the civil war, they were the target of the riots against "speculators"; approximately 150,000 men, women and children fell victim to the series of pogroms from 1918 to 1920..  After the war, the Commission on the consequences of the war was unable to provide final figures. The Russian Civil War was a civil war fought from November 1917 until October 1922 between several groups in Russia.The main fighting was between the Red Army and the White Army.The Red Army was an army of communists.The White Army opposed the communists. Several pogroms and mass repression reignited the political and ethnic fractures in the empire. Casualties in the Civil War. 315-325. : «Poteri russkoj armii v vojnu 1914-1918» [The losses of the army during the 1914-1918 war], Trudy komissii po obsledovaniju sanitarnyh posledstvij vojny 1914-1920 gg. [Works of the commission of inquiry about the sanitary consequences of the war, 1914-1920], Gran, M.M./Kurkina, P.I./Kuvšinnikova, P.A. In which we examine some similarities between the Russian Civil War and the 30 Years War, examine Patterson's definition of terror, and â¦ However, the number of casualties per battle remain unclear. However, the perceived threat of another intervention, combined with the failure of socialist revolutions in other countries, most notably the German Revolution, contributed to the continued militarization of Soviet society. Of the three points of their effective sloganââPeace, land, and breadââthe first proved to be the most difficult to realize. War Communism saved the Soviet government during the Civil War, but much of the Russian economy had ground to a standstill. The devastation wrought by the first months of the war shook up the staffing of the units: the professional officers, aristocrats or not, were replaced by a stratum of clerks and educated peasants, closer to the troops as they had come from their ranks. Sumpf, Alexandre: «Une société amputée. Russo-Polish War (1919â20), military conflict between Soviet Russia and Poland. Krivošeev, Rossija i SSSR v vojnah XX veka. German repression and requisition caused increased mortality in these areas. Did the events of the war reveal illnesses which were already present, or did they produce specific pathologies?  The unrest first grew in the oasis zone before reaching the towns in July. Other forces fought against both these groups or sometimes helped one against the other. 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